Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 31, Issue 2, 2021
Abstract: The paper reflects a number of problems related to threats to distributed information systems due to the presence of BackDoor. The usage of BackDoor to attack distributed computer systems has great advantages over the traditional usage of malicious code. In fact, the usage of BackDoor is difficult to identify as a special attack, i. e., distinguish from error in computing processes. However, building attacks with BackDoor is much more difficult than building attacks with malicious code. The example of BackDoor is built using the initial data of information technology. This approach to the construction of BackDoor was not found in any of the descriptions of BackDoor. The paper shows that the existing technologies for finding vulnerabilities in the hardware and software of the system do not solve the problems of searching for BackDoor.
Keywords: information security; BackDoor; BackDoor through data
ANALYTICAL MODEL OF CARRIER SENSE MULTIPLE ACCESS PROTOCOL FOR INDUSTRIAL INTERNET OF THINGS APPLICATIONS
Abstract: Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is one of the key features of Industry 4.0 that stands for a new approach to design industrial processes using the latest technological advances. However, before implementing new processes, it is necessary to understand the characteristics and limitations that arise due to technical complexity of the system. To solve this problem for some generalized IIoT use case, a mathematical model of the multiple access protocol with channel sensing is proposed. This model allows one to estimate the average sensor's data transmission cycle time, successful data transmission probability, and probability of a collision during data transmission. Analytical expressions for calculating key performance metrics at the access layer are proposed.
Keywords: Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT); MAC layer; channel sensing; multiple access; Markov chain; collision probability
Abstract: The reliability of the center for collective use of the FRC CSC RAS is evaluated, which takes into account the reliability indicators of the following system's component: a hybrid high-performance complex, power supply, and air conditioning systems. The analysis of the ways to improve the reliability of the center is carried out. The main conditions for ensuring the reliability of functioning and maintaining the operability of the hardware and hardware- software tools of the collective use center during their operation are formulated. Recommendations are given to ensure high-quality maintenance and repair of equipment.
Keywords: collective use center; power supply system; air conditioning system; reliability; failure; equivalent circuit for reliability calculation
Abstract: Modern methods for the neurophysiological data analysis provide promising solutions to various problems both in the field of medical industry and in the field of brain-computer interfaces development. In this paper, a couple of important electroencephalography (EEG) data analysis problems are considered that are artifact detection and removal and human emotion recognition. Due to recent active development of algorithms based on deep artificial neural networks and to the cost reduction of commercial prototypes of brain-computer interfaces, the efficiency and robustness of modern methods for EEG data analysis is approaching a level sufficient for use outside the laboratory. The paper proposes methods for EEG data analysis based on convolutional and recurrent neural networks which make it possible to achieve high accuracy of artifact classification and emotion recognition over open data sets.
Keywords: neurophysiology; neuroinformatics; electroencephalography; data analysis artificial neural networks; data artifact detection; emotion recognition
Abstract: Conflicts in teams of specialists solving the problems at a round table are an integral part of the discussion process and in computer modeling of this process, it is necessary to manage conflicts by analogy with how it happens in the original. Not every conflict is destructive and requires suppression: managing a conflict in a team involves identifying a decision-making situation, if necessary, stimulating and then resolving constructive forms of conflict, as well as preventing its destructive forms. The article is devoted to the development of a method for stimulating conflicts between agents in hybrid intelligent multiagent systems which will allow the development of a conflict management subsystem, ensuring the relevance of such systems to small teams of specialists who successfully solve the problems with high combinatorial complexity, heterogeneity, underdetermination, and other NON-factors.
Keywords: conflict; hybrid intelligent multiagent system; team of specialists; stimulating conflict
Abstract: The paper focuses on the variant of autonomous exploration problem that implies three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of an unknown environment by moving a mobile robot with optical sensor through the environment. The authors introduce a data structure called direction map that accumulates information about viewpoints for every region of the scene. A direction map is used to formulate an exploration strategy according to the next-best-view principle. This strategy can be efficiently implemented using rectangular partition of an orthogonal polygon and integral matrices. Experimental evaluation of the proposed strategy is done in virtual environment. Completeness of the resulting 3D model is evaluated by comparison with the ground truth.
Keywords: 3D reconstruction; indoor exploration; autonomous mobile robot
Abstract: Evolution of information technologies attracts the interest of data center owners, alongside the more functional storage equipment, to more efficient storing technologies, the software-defined storage (SDS) being among promising ones. Following the software-defined networking (SDN), the SDS has borrowed some essentials from the precursor, implementation of the control plane in a single programmable controller and simplification of the data plane hardware included. However, despite the growing interest to the SDS, some definite gaps remain in the SDS theoretical basics, beginning with the lack of a generally accepted adequate definition. As a result, a lot of questionable and incorrect assertions may be found in publications devoted to the SDS. Also, the publications do not demonstrate comprehension of the objective distinction between the SDS and SDN, which compel these related technologies to evolve in somewhat differing ways. In the article, an attempt is made to formulate a "universal" definition of the SDS, principal distinctions of the SDS from the SDN are exposed, and some development features of this promising technology are outlined.
Keywords: hyper-converged infrastructure (HCI); orchestration; software- defined storage (SDS)
Abstract: This is the second article of a series devoted to the description of the decision support system in the field of ensuring the safety of passenger traffic and countering illegal activities in transport. Based on the conceptual model proposed in the first article, the functional content of the system is formed.
Keywords: transport safety; decision support system; search query; calculated task; data processing
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE II: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SCIENTOMETRIC INDICATORS IN THE WORLD AND IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Abstract: The paper continues the series of works initiated in the previous issue by the presentation of the results of the analysis of the impact of public administration on the effectiveness of research and development in the field of artificial intelligence (AI R&D). This second part of the cycle is devoted to the analysis of AI R&D scientometric indicators carried out in the world and in the Russian Federation in the period from 2000 to 2019. Information on the world indexed scientific publications in the field of AI R&D is presented. Information about the world publication activity in the field of AI R&D is provided.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; scientometric indices; abstract databases; Scopus platform; Web of Science platform
Abstract: Mixtures of probability distributions play an important role in modern analysis and modeling of complex processes. Traditionally, much research attention is paid to the distributions from the gamma class. The main probabilistic characteristics of scale mixtures of generalized gamma distributions cannot be expressed in elementary functions that complicates the process of analytical research and often leads to unreasonably large computational difficulties. The paper analyzes aspects of computation and analytical properties of the gamma- exponential function which has proven itself as a convenient tool for studying scale mixtures of generalized gamma distributions. The presented results expand the usage of functions like the Mittag-Leffler function in the analysis of probability distributions.
Keywords: gamma-exponential function; generalized gamma distribution; scale mixture; computational algorithms
A VARIANT OF THE CONCEPTUAL SCHEMA OF THE GEODATA DATABASE WITH SUPPORT FOR REVERSIBLE GENERALIZATION CONNECTIVITY OF GEO OBJECT MODELS
Abstract: The structure of the conceptual scheme and the main design solutions for constructing a variant of the geodata database (GDB), which provides support for reversible generalization connectivity of geomodels representing a geo object with different details, are presented. This will expand the functionality of advanced GDB by using multiscale methods of geodata analysis and solving the corresponding tasks based on them. In particular, such a multiscale structure of the GDB will formalize the processes of generalization and automated control of data integrity in the GDB, and thus contribute to their automation.
Keywords: geodata databases; conceptual schema of the geodata database; modeling of geo objects; reversible generalization of geomodels
Abstract: The paper presents an overview of the principles of importing preexisting dictionary articles into the database of the phraseological dictionary, i. e., using inheritable lexicographic resources. The import of dictionary articles into the database is based on two key principles: structuring the text of the articles and adding new fields and their values into the articles. Each article contains an idiom in German, one or several translations into Russian, their contexts, and a range of other components. The goal of the paper is to describe the principles of using and supplementing inheritable lexicographic resources during the process of forming the database of the phraseological dictionary of German idioms as well as comparing the features of the database with capabilities of similar lexicographic information systems of dictionary creation from the standpoint of the two aforementioned principles of import.
Keywords: import principles; inheritable lexicographic resources; comparative analysis; phraseological dictionary database
Abstract: The paper presents data collected by tracking performance of a neural machine translation (NMT) engine and results of translation errors analysis. Indicator-based evaluation of NMT instability was carried out as a part of an experiment that involved 250 Russian text fragments. Each month for the duration of one year, these fragments were translated into French using the Google Translate NMT engine. The translations were recorded and annotated in a supracorpora database; the annotations include types of translation errors found in the translations by language experts. This procedure resulted in a series of 12 annotated translations for each of the 250 Russian fragments. The annotations include not only the types of errors found in the translations but also the types of NMT instability which indicate dynamics of translation quality or lack thereof. The paper aims to provide comparative analysis of Google Translate performance that takes into account the temporal variation aspect.
Keywords: neural machine translation (NMT); instability of machine translation; supracorpora database; indicator-based evaluation; linguistic annotation; NMT instability types
RESISTANCE OF TECHNOLOGY OF CONCRETE HISTORICAL INVESTIGATION SUPPORT TO ATTEMPTS OF HISTORY DISTORTION
Abstract: The article continues a series of works devoted to the description and analysis of distributed technology of concrete historical investigation support based on the principles of crowdsourcing. This article is devoted to modeling the process of information attacks on the community of technology users in order to falsify the history. Some numerical indicators reflecting the consequences of such attacks have been developed. The tests proved the vulnerability of the technology to information attacks in the absence of special countermeasures. Such measures based on certain group norms of information processing, the distribution of roles, and the use of special facilitation techniques and described in the form of community members activity algorithm were proposed. Modeling has shown that the proposed measures of resistance to information attacks are stably effective. It allowed us to recommend the usage of the proposed measures in the technology of concrete historical investigation support and to draw a conclusion about the sustainability of the updated technology to attempts to falsify the history.
Keywords: virtual community; model; technology; distortion of history; concrete historical investigation
Abstract: A model of situational digitalization of the commodity-money circulation system is proposed, where the specifications of goods, payments, and other components of the system are represented by encrypted digital codes. The management of commodity-money circulation is carried out through the systems of mandatory and orienting requirements fixed in situational digital contracts that determine the relationships between customers and suppliers. The implementation of each contract is represented by the situations defined there. Data defining the portraits of situations are supplied by digital twins serving the contract. These data are going to the input of the contract program executed on the computer devices of the contracting parties. The movement of goods and payments is accompanied by the documentary supported movement of the corresponding codes. Each operation is reflected in the memory of the digital system of recording the values of property rights, represented by a set of unified accounts of suppliers and customers. Multicurrency accounts are opened and programmatically controlled by the online services of the regulating bank. For each commodity, the transaction can be made in any currency from the list which is the intersection of the sets of currencies allowed by the regulating banks of the states to which the transaction parties belong.
Keywords: system of commodity-money circulation; situational digital contract; system for recording the values of property rights; unified multicurrency account; online service
MATHEMATICAL AND COMPUTER MODELING OF AGROCENOSIS OF COTTON TAKING INTO ACCOUNT THE AGE STRUCTURE AND WITH ARBITRARY TROPHIC FUNCTIONS
Abstract: Cotton agrocenosis is an example of a complex system, since it is divided into three subsystems (zoocenosis, phytocenosis, and microbiocenosis), and, in turn, each subsystem can be divided into a finite number of smaller subsystems. For example, zoocenosis is divided into beneficial (predators and parasites of pests) and harmful insects (cotton pests), phytocenosis consists of one element of cotton, microbiocenosis consists of pathogens of wilt and other microorganisms. This paper considers mathematical and computer modeling of the process of protecting agrocenosis of cotton taking into account the age structure and arbitrary trophic functions.
Keywords: mathematical and computer modeling; model; agrocenosis; cotton; arbitrary trophic function; harmful insects; beneficial insects; age structure; biomass; number of biological populations; nectariferous plants
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