# «Systems and Means of Informatics» Scientific journal Volume 30, Issue 3, 2020

## Abstract and Keywords.

##### FLOWS DISTRIBUTION ESTIMATIONS AT MAXIMUM LOAD OF MULTIUSER NETWORK<
• Yu. E. Malashenko
• I. A. Nazarova

Abstract: An iterative method of sequential distribution of a multiproduct flow which allows full using of the capacity of all network edges is considered. Within the framework of a formal mathematical notation of a network model, flow vectors are determined that can be simultaneously transmitted between all pairs of vertices. Joint distributions of flows are found sequentially, at which the maximum possible load of one of the edges is achieved. The achieved flow values for all corresponding node pairs are recorded and the remaining capacity is calculated. At the next stage, the problem of finding the joint distribution of the maximum possible flows is solved again, and the next edge, whose capacity is exhausted, is identified. The procedure is repeated until the remaining capacity of all edges is equal to zero. The results of computational experiments on network models with different structural features are analyzed. The proposed procedure can be used for a priori analysis of functionality and for evaluating the efficiency of using network resources.

Keywords: feasible flows set; equal-shared flows distribution; network efficiency estimation

##### STATIONARY CHARACTERISTICS OF THE TWO-NODE MARKOVIAN TANDEM QUEUEING SYSTEM WITH GENERAL RENOVATION
• T.A. Milovanova

Abstract: Consideration is given to the Markovian tandem queueing system with two finite-capacity heterogeneous nodes, say node 1 and node 2. The output of node 1 is the input into node 2. Each node is a single-server queue with a Poisson incoming flow of customers and service times having Erlang distribution. The service discipline is FIFO (first in, first out). General renovation is implemented in each node which implies that upon a service completion, a customer may remove a random number of customers from the queue (if any is available), with a given probability distribution; removed customers leave the system. Using the matrix-geometric technique, one derives the joint stationary distribution of the nodes' states. A recursive algorithm for computation of the stationary loss probabilities under the head-of-the-queue renovation is also proposed.

Keywords: queueing system; tandem; general renovation; queue management

##### ERGODICITY OF SINGLE SERVER QUEUES WITH PREEMPTIVE PRIORITY
• A. V. Mistryukov

Abstract: Well known results on ergodicity of queues with preemptive priority were obtained under the assumption that jobs arrive according to Poisson process. However, this assumption does not always hold true in practice. In this paper, the author finds sufficient ergodicity conditions for queues with two priority classes with single server, where interarrival times of high priority jobs have either Erlang or hyperexponential distribution and interarrival times of low priority jobs and service times of jobs of both classes have arbitrary continuous distributions. To formulate desired conditions, the authors use Lindley's recursion for waiting times of each priority class queue. Using Lyapunov-Foster criteria, the authors obtain sufficient conditions for a given recursion to be Harris-ergodic Markov chain.

Keywords: preemptive priority; ergodicity; Lyapunov-Foster criteria; hyperexponential arrivals; Erlang arrivals

##### SOLVING OF DIAGNOSTIC TASKS BY A DOCTOR
• S. B. Rumovskaya
• A. V. Kolesnikov

Abstract: The paper considers the specificities of individual solving of tasks by a doctor, in particular, the contribution of figurative thinking in the diagnosis.
The experienced doctor has well-developed right-brain thinking and uses it actively in the diagnostic process. So, arguments are based not only on precise analysis but also on the right side of the mechanisms of reasoning, thereby forming verbal-haptic-visual images of diagnostic tasks and the state of the diagnostic object. These images are of the current situation, normal, and past experience from previous years. The paper describes a general scheme for formulation and solution of homogeneous diagnostic tasks, and the cognitive image of the diagnostic object and its functional strain to the operational images containing only required features for private actions on the diagnostic object.

Keywords: homogeneous diagnostic task; individual decision-making in medicine; cognitive image of the object of diagnosis; operational images of the object of diagnosis

##### SELF-TIMED PIPELINE IMMUNITY TO SOFT ERRORS IN ITS COMBINATIONAL PART
• Yu. A. Stepchenkov
• Yu. G. Diachenko
• Yu. V. Rogdestvenski
• N. V. Morozov
• D. Yu. Stepchenkov
• D. Yu. Diachenko

Abstract: The paper estimates the data corruption probability in self-timed circuits manufactured by a standard 65-nanometer and below CMOS process because of short-term soft errors that occurred in the pipeline combinational part. Soft errors appear as a result of the external causes and internal noise sources. The paper analyzes events able to lead to data corruption in the pipeline due to soft errors. In the worth case, self-timed pipeline is naturally immune to 84.4% soft errors in its combinational part due to self-timed circuit features.
Proposed layout synthesis techniques increase soft error tolerance of the pipeline up to 85.6%. Indication of the state of the paraphase signal, inversed to its spacer, as spacer provides self-timed pipeline immunity to 98.6% of single soft errors at the expanse of pipeline hardware complexity by less than 1 %.

Keywords: self-timed circuit; soft error tolerance; pipeline

##### STATIC METHOD FOR STEGANOGRAPHIC EMBEDDING BASED ON LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT
• I. A. Krivosheev
• M. A. Linnik

Abstract: A new approach to information hiding based on the LSB (least significant bit) method is proposed. A static method for embedding information in a color image based on the matrix representation of individual blocks and estimating their determinant modulus is proposed. Numerical modeling evaluated the possibility of the proposed method to withstand various methods of steganalysis. Its advantage is shown both in the degree of security and in the amount of embedded information. This algorithm can be used for embedding in image by formats without compressing information.

Keywords: steganography; stego container; steganalysis; determinant; LSB; RS-steganalysis; chi-squared test steganalysis; visual analysis of bit slices

##### THE TECHNIQUE ALLOWING FOR TEMPORAL ESTIMATION OF MACHINE TRANSLATION INSTABILITY
• A. Yu. Egorova
• I. M. Zatsman
• M. G. Kruzhkov
• V. A. Nuriev

Abstract: The paper presents a technique allowing for temporal estimation of instability of neural machine translation (NMT). This technique gives an opportunity to see how NMT of a given text fragment changes with time. The experiment described in the paper involves 250 Russian text fragments. During a year, each text fragment was repeatedly translated into Freneh. The time step was one month. To produce translations, the Google NMT system was used. All the translations were annotated in a supracorpora database to register the output errors (if there were any). Eventually, for each of 250 text fragments, there was a series of 12 annotated translations. The annotation containing the 12th translation had a heading denoting the degree of NMT instability in relation to the entire series of translations. This heading characterized changes in translation quality or indicated their absence. The paper is aimed to describe both the technique allowing for temporal estimation of NMT instability and results of its application.

Keywords: neural machine translation; instability; quality estimation for machine translation; linguistic annotation; instability types

##### ORGANIZATION OF THE RESEARCH DATA LIFE CYCL
• A. K. Rychikhin
• V. A. Nuriev

Abstract: The article investigates the problem of organizing the research data life cycle in the humanities. Data life cycle includes drawing up a data management plan, collecting and/or generating data, determining their structure and format, choosing a license and a digital repository for their long-term preservation, and disseminating the data. The description of each stage is accompanied by an overview of the recommendations of the European working groups on the implementation of the FAIR principles (FAIR - findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) and links to tools that help implement these principles.
A comparison of digital repositories was made according to the criteria of the Swiss National Science Foundation. The goal of the article is to give a short overview of the research data life cycle stages and of the recommendations helping to implement the FAIR data principles.

Keywords: research organization; data management plan; data life cycle; digital repositories; FAIR data principles; metadata standardization

##### THREATS AND RISKS OF IMPLEMENTING COMPLEX SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PROGRAMS WITHIN THE PRIORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY
• A. A. Zatsarinny
• A. P. Suchkov

Abstract: The article deals with the actual problems of implementing the strategy of scientific and technological development of Russia in the framework of accepted priorities based on complex scientific and technical research and development programs (CSTP), primarily within the first priority. Methodological approaches to classification of risks and threats based on their systematization, which hinder implementation of the adopted CSTP, are presented. A threat classifier is proposed that allows one to get a complete picture of effectiveness of the planned set of measures in the CSTP. An assessment of potential risks and threats in relation to the "Artificial intelligence as a driver of digital transformation of the Russian economy", developed by the Federal Research Center "Computer Science and Control" of the Russian Academy of Sciences, is given. It is shown that the main risks are caused by insufficient stimulation of scientific research and low demand for innovative scientific results.}

Keywords: complex scientific and technical program; strategy of scientific and technological development; classification of risks and threats; artificial intelligence; scientific research

##### ALGORITHMS FOR AN ANALYTICAL DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT OF SCIENTIFIC SERVICES FOR PLANNING AND EXECUTION OF INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH
• A. P. Suchkov

Abstract: The article discusses methods and algorithms for data analysis of the scientific services management system for planning and performing interdisciplinary research. The peculiarity of the interdisciplinary approach is that it allows direct transfer of research methods from one scientific discipline to another, which determins the specific tasks of analysis. The system of scientific services management in the interests of interdisciplinary research should provide scientific analytical services for selection of relevant scientific tools of related disciplines, a team of competent researchers, and services for planning and conducting these studies. The main source of data for this type of analysis is the largest full-text, abstract and index database of scientific publications.

Keywords: scientific result; information model; scientific services; identification algorithms; intellectual search; interdisciplinary research

##### ACTUAL INFORMATION SECURITY PROBLEMS IN CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC CONDITIONS
• V. E. Gavrilov
• A. A. Zatsarinny

Abstract: The article is dedicated to information security problems of information technology using arising in actions execution directed to coronavirus pandemic control in Russia. Information security is considered in general meaning and includes technical, functional, and systemic levels. The authors analyze main areas of information technologies application that are created for high readiness situation or sensing high load in pandemic conditions.

Keywords: pandemic; information technologies; information security; technical security; functional security; system security

##### DEVELOPMENT OF A MODULE FOR GRINDING MESHES CELLS IN SEVERAL DIRECTIONS AND ITS INTEGRATION INTO THE GUI FOR THE OpenFOAM SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
• D. I. Chitalov

Abstract: This article is devoted to the development of a software module that extends the source code of the graphical shell rCF_GUI, created by the author, and that allows automating one of the stages of a numerical experiment for the problems of continuum mechanics - grinding cells of computational meshes in several directions. This stage is performed as a part of preprocessing of a numerical experiment and determines the accuracy of the result (final numerieal model). The goal of the study and the set of tasks for its achievement are formulated. The stack of technologies necessary for development of the module is defined, its block diagram and diagram describing the logic of use are presented. The implemented module is integrated into the current version of the graphical shell rCF_GUF which is available in the public access on the GitHub service. The module's capabilities have been tested as a part of the research with the training task of continuum mechanies in the field of aerodynamies, which is a part of the OpenFOAM software environment distribution. The results of the study are summarized, its novelty and practical significance are revealed.

Keywords: numerical simulation; continuum mechanics; refineMesh utility; OpenFOAM; open source software; graphical user interface; Python programming language; PyQt library

##### AUTOMATED SEARCH FOR CONTRADICTIONS IN CONCRETE-HISTORICAL INFORMATION
• O. I. Volkov

Abstract: The article continues the series of works devoted to the technology of concrete historical research support. The technology is based on the principles of co-creation and crowdsourcing and is designed for a wide range of users which are not professional historians and biographers. The article is devoted to the further development of the technology by integrating the mechanism of automated search for contradictions in concrete-historical information. The impossibility of using existing approaches to this problem was substantiated by the specificity of concrete-historical research and the processed in its context information which is presented in the form of historical-biographical fact. The goals of searching for contradictions in concrete-historical information which follow from this specificity and consist not in reducing of available to the researcher information but in discovery of new lines of research are formulated.
The classification of types of contradictions in concrete-historical information is carried out and the usage of the mechanism of normals supporting regulating the dependencies between facts is justified. The necessary changes to the technology object model are described and justified, the algorithm is described in detail, and the procedures for processing search results are defined.

Keywords: concrete historical investigation; distributed technology; contradiction; historical-biographical fact; automated procedure

##### SITUATIONAL MODEL OF UNIVERSAL AGREEMENT IN A DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT
• A. V. Ilyin
• V. D. Ilyin

Abstract: The situational model of universal agreement programmatically implementable in the digital environment (UDE-agreement) is considered as a part of the methodological support for implementation of contractual relations. Universal agreement in the digital environment may reflect property relations (bank agreement, trade agreement, etc.), labor relations (employment contract, work contract, etc.), and any other relations of the contracting parties (individuals and/or legal entities). Universal agreement in the digital environment is a system of mandatory and orienting requirements that determine the behavior and statuses of the parties. The fulfilling of the UDE-agreement is represented by the situations determined in the agreement. Situation-specific data are supplied by digital twins serving the UDE-agreement. These data are transmitted to the input of the UDE-agreement software running on computer devices (smartphones, laptops, etc.) of the parties. The situational model of UDE-agreement is based on the idea of a smart contract proposed by Nick Szabo and the methodology of situational informatization developed by the authors. The model can be applied in development of technologies for arbitrary contractual relations implementable in the digital environment.

Keywords: universal agreement in the digital environment (UDE-agreement); situational model of the UDE-agreement; technology of contractual relations; smart contract; digital twins serving the UDE-agreement

##### BASIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND "INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONS": WHAT IS THEIR RELATIONSHIP?
• S. N. Grinchenko

Abstract: Based on the informatics-cybernetic model of the self-controlling hierarchical-network system of humankind, it was stated that: (a) the first industrial revolution (IR) by K. Schwab (1760-1840) is an IR in the generally accepted sense of this term and at the same time, system initiated by basic information technology (BIT) of the replication of texts, revolution (1806) of production and social infrastructure technologies; (b) the second IR according to K. Schwab (end of the 19th -beginning of the 20th centuries) does not fit into the model diagram of the dating of system technology revolutions in the history of humankind in its entirety. It, in the absence of an appropriate initiating BIT, should be interpreted as the second phase (marking the beginning of the "century of electricity") of the first IR (marking the beginning of the "century of steam"). The totality of the first and second IR determines the formation of "the world of power machines" in the self-controlling system of humankind; (c) the third IR according to K. Schwab (1960s) is a systemic, initiated by BIT of local computers, revolution (1970) of production and social infrastructure technologies; and (d) the fourth IR according to K. Schwab ("the frontier of the new millennium") is a system revolution initiated by BIT of telecommunications (2003) of production and socioinfrastructural technologies.
The combination of the third and fourth IR determines the formation of "the world of intelligent machines" or "the world of artificial intelligence." Thus, the indicated relationship between BIT and IR is that the former initiates the latter with some inertia.

Keywords: basic information technologies; production technologies; social and infrastructural technologies; industrial revolutions; K. Schwab; informatics- cybernetic model; self-controlling hierarchical-network system of humankind

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