Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 32, Issue 3, 2022
SOME METHODOLOGICAL ISSUES OF ASSESSING THE LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL READINESS OF INFORMATION SYSTEMS PROJECTS
Abstract: The article is devoted to the issues of assessing the level of technological readiness of information systems (IS) projects. General approaches to assessing the level of readiness of projects abroad and in Russia are presented. It is shown that at present, an approach using the methods of assessing technological/production/market readiness levels (TRL/MRL/CRL) based on a 9-level scale and allowing to assess the level of readiness of technology, production, and product readiness to enter the market is becoming increasingly developed. The advantages of these methods are considered. It is noted that in Russia, they are mainly used in corporate projects and are practically not used in the development of IS projects in the interests of public administration. Proposals are formulated to improve the methods of evaluating IS projects including a methodological approach to assessing the level of technological readiness of projects.
Keywords: project; information system; project readiness level; technological readiness; production readiness
Abstract: The article is devoted to the consideration of threats which arise during the implementation of new digital technologies in frame of digital transformation.
Keywords: information security; threats; information technologies; functional security; systemic security; regulatory and methodical base
MODELING OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPLETE EARLY DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS AND PROGNOSIS OF THE STATE OF COMPLEX OBJECTS IN MEDICINE. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
Abstract: The problems of personalized assessment of the state (PSA) of a complex object (CO) as a heterogeneous system are considered. It is proposed to develop and investigate a new approach to improve the efficiency and quality of solving the problems of medical diagnostics and prediction in conditions of significant diversity, heterogeneity, and uncertainty of information about a complex diagnostic object as well as the heterogeneity of the process of personalized assessment of their state. It is proposed to create and investigate methods and models of a new class of hybrid intelligent systems (HyIS) for medical diagnostics and prediction integrating heterogeneous models for the development and interpretation of PSA of a CO at different stages of the examination process as well as combining two types of HyIS (functional and transformational).
Keywords: hybrid intelligent system; intelligent decision support system; complex object of diagnostics; medical diagnostics and prognosis
Abstract: The paper is devoted to the problem of user's attention detection.
It investigates the choice of a visual stimulus by the electroencephalogram (EEG) with the evoked potentials related to the event, P300, highlighted in it. The electrical brain potentials are measured while the user is observing visual stimuli. The goal is to select a stimulus which causes the maximum brain response. A classification model detects if there is a P300 potential in an EEG segment. Various classification models for event-related potentials are compared.
Keywords: classification; electroencephalogram; event-related potential; model selection; brain-computer interface
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to consider the characteristic features of a number of basic approaches and their corresponding models of spatiotemporal (temporal) geodata models proposed in recent decades and to identify the main trends in the development of spatiotemporal modeling for temporal geoinformation systems (T-GIS). It is noted that it is not necessary to talk about a general approach to spatiotemporal geomodeling due to the variety of requirements and features inherent in specific tasks of specific T-GIS. Graph-based modeling of events and processes, an agent-oriented approach, the use of the paradigm of moving objects, as well as the integration of these approaches together are important areas.
Keywords: modeling of geographical phenomena; evolution of geo objects; temporal geoinformation system; spatiotemporal geodata database; classification of temporal geomodels
Abstract: The new mass machine to machine communication services currently emerging, such as power grid monitoring, are characterized by a fundamentally different nature of the traffic incoming process. By polling the User Equipment (UE) at regular intervals, these services result in bursting of messages which has a negative impact on the delay in information delivery. In addition, they also require high reliability of information delivery and network availability which can be achieved by using multiple radio access networks (Radio Access Technology, RAT) on one UE. In this paper, the authors develop a mathematical model for estimating radio interface latency in Low Power Wide Area Networks with multiple RATs for bursty messages. The authors also propose a numerical algorithm for estimating optimal UE associations minimizing the information transmission delay on the radio interface.
Keywords: 5G; NB-IoT; LTE-M; machine-to-machine communication
ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF LOADS AND RESOURCES IN A MULTIUSER NETWORK WITH EQUAL-SHARE INTERNODAL FLOWS
Abstract: An iterative method of resource distribution for the formation of a communication network with equal internodal flows is considered. Within the framework of a formal mathematical model, the throughput capacities of edges are considered as components of a vector of resources of various types that are required for the transmission of different types of flows. The network graph and the sum of the edge capacity are considered to be given. An algorithmic procedure for selecting throughput capacities is proposed in which all internodal flows are equal and the maximum load of all network edges is achieved. When searching for the corresponding distributions, the values of the maximum single-product flows are used which are determined for each pair of nodes. The computational experiments were carried out for the networks with various structural features.
Keywords: multicommodity flow model; network resource distribution method; equalizing distribution of interstitial flows; network peak load
Abstract: The paper discusses the problems of designing and using self-timed (ST) shift registers. Self-timed circuits have their specifics: two-phase work discipline, redundant information coding, etc. Due to this, they have some advantages compared with synchronous counterparts: independence of behavior from cell delays, detection of any stuck faults, etc. The article considers implementation options for the ST shift register with various options, including setting to a spacer and presetting a fixed value in each bit of the shift register.
Keywords: self-timed circuit; hysteretic trigger; RS-flip-flop; shift register; FIFO; serial-to-parallel port; hardware costs; performance
Abstract: The paper focuses on the problem of targeted retrieval of fragments with implicit logical-semantic relations (LSRs) from monolingual natural language texts. In order to answer the question whether such retrieval is possible, a survey of works with the results of implicit LSRs studies has been conducted.
Keywords: implicitness; implicit logical-semantic relations; targeted retrieval; natural language processing; information extraction
Abstract: The paper describes user features of the Database of Hierarchies of Logical-Semantic Relations (SBDH LSR), a new tool for annotating discourse relations, developed at FRC CSC RAS. The article lists annotations stages in the SBDH LSR: selection of the context for annotation, possible modifications, annotation of the LSR marker and of LSR itself. In a single annotation, the formed annotations reflect three important theoretical aspects of discourse analysis: the LSR marker (or its absence); the hierarchy of LSR; and the boundaries of text fragments directly connected by LSR. The database's interface allows one to edit, complete, or filter the annotated information: to save annotations' previous states and, if necessary, go back to one of them, to recover deleted annotations, to use already created annotations to form the new ones. The results obtained with the SBDH LSR have already allowed us to clarify some theoretical points, in particular, those formulated by the Rhetorical Structure Theory. Further analysis of the examples and statistical capabilities of the SBDH LSR will make it possible to establish regularities in the deep LSR hierarchies.
Keywords: supracorpora database; corpus of text annotations; discourse relations; connector
Abstract: The strategy of the European digital education is analyzed, in creating of which the outcomes of two-year monitoring of the state of informatics teaching systems in the regions and countries of Europe, including the Russian Federation, were used. Since the authors of the strategy were analyzing the teaching system state of informatics, they needed to give a modern description of this discipline.
Keywords: digital education; monitoring of teaching systems; informatics as a fundamental science; informatics as an educational discipline; strategy of teaching informatics
Abstract: The symbolic model (s-model) of the normalized multicurrency digital payment (NMDP) system is considered as a component of the s-model of the normalized economic mechanism (NEM). The technologies of the NMDP-system relate to the technologies of commodity-money circulation of NEM. The core of the s-model of the NMDP-system is represented by situationally changeable mandatory and orienting requirements for the properties and functioning of the system. The participants of the NMDP-system are identified by individual tax numbers and computer devices registered in the system for online interaction when making payments. At each time interval, the sets of acceptable trade transactions, the currencies used for settlements, and the rules of trade fees are defined. The NCSP-payment can be made in any currency from the list which is the intersection of currencies sets allowed by central banks of the states to which the participants in the trade transaction belong.
Keywords: multicurrency payment system; normalized economic mechanism; personal electronic banks; corporate electronic banks; online services
Abstract: The article continues the series of works devoted to the technology of concrete historical research supporting. The technology is based on the principles of co-creation and crowdsourcing and is designed for a wide range of users which are not professional historians and biographers. The article is devoted to the further development of the technology by integrating the mechanism of automated search for anomalies in concrete-historical information.
Keywords: concrete historical investigation; distributed technology; anomaly; historical-biographical fact; automated procedure
ON THE COMPARATIVE GENESIS OF BASIC INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES AND SOCIOECONOMIC FORMATIONS OF THE HUMANKIND
Abstract: From the standpoint of informatics-cybernetic modeling of the development process of the self-controlling hierarchical-network system of Humankind, the parallelism of the processes of the genesis of basic information technologies (BIT) and socioeconomic formations (SEF) of Humankind is considered. The period of the formation of BIT signal poses/sounds/movements ("pre-pre-human" Hominoidea) corresponds to the SEF with the working title "pre-pre-primitive communal formation," the period of the formation of BIT mimics/gestures ("pre-human" Homo erectus) - SEF "pre-primitive communal formation," the period of formation of BIT of speech/language (human Homo sapiens-1)- SEF "primitive communal formation-1" (PCF), the period of forma-tion of BIT writing/reading (Homo sapiens-2)- SEF "Feudalism-1 + PCF-2," the period of formation of BIT of replicating texts/printing (Homo sapiens-3) - SEF "Capitalism-1 + Feudalism-2 + PCF-3," the period of formation of BIT local computers (Homo sapiens-4) - SEF "-Digitalism-1 + Capitalism-2 + Feudalism-3 + PCF-4," the period of formation of BIT of telecommunications/networks (Homo sapiens-5) - SEF "-Digitalism-1 + -Digitalism-2 + Capitalism-3 + Feudalism-4 + + PCF-5," the period of formation of a promising nano-BIT (Homo sapiens-6) - SEF "-Digitalism-1 + -Digitalism-2 + -Digitalism-3 + + Capitalism-4 + Feudalism-5 + PCF-6," etc. The characteristics of the corre-sponding management structures are given: from "pre-pre-democracy" within the family to the promising "democrat-autocrat-oligarch--arithmocrat-3- -arithmocrat-2--arithmocracy-1" within the Intermediate Space.
Keywords: basic information technologies; socioeconomic formations; informatics-cybernetic model; self-controlling hierarchical-network system of Humankind; systemic genesis; systemic cumulation principle; systemic consistency principle
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