Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 30, Issue 1, 2020
Abstract: Approximate quasi-linear filtering and extrapolation methods for migrational-populational stochastic systems (MPStS) are developed. Volterra StS are the special case of MPStS. The MPStS are described by nonlinear differential Ito stochastic equations with additive and parametric noises. Corresponding algorithms are based on the conditionally-optimal linear Pugachev filtering and extrapolation theory. For wide-band noises, simplified approaches for filters synthesis are based on interchange of parametric noises by the additional ones. For narrow-band noise, the methods of Pugachev canonical expansions and generalized canonical expansions corresponding algorithms are proposed. As the test example, three-dimensional differential MPStS with nonlinear stochastic migrational flow with polarized additive and parametric noises is considered.
Keywords: analytical modeling; filtering and extrapolation; migrational- populational StS (MPStS); normal approximation method (NAM); Pugachev conditionally-optimal filtering and extrapolation; statistical linearization method; stochastic system (StS); Volterra StS
Abstract: Neurophysiology as a data-intensive science requires detailed data specification from the domain point of view. Such specifications are necessary for organization of semantic search over collected data, creation of conceptual schemes for a homogeneous representation of source data, and providing interoperability for research problem solving using neurophysiological data by specialists of the domain. Known ontologies that provide concepts of neurophysiology define them in a formal way only partially. Existing ontologies are not enough to express semantics of data, methods, and processes for solving most of research problems. This particular work is aimed at developing formal specifications for the domain of analysis and modeling of cognitive functions of brain. The coherent specifications developed can be used to manage collections of heterogeneous data and methods, to create conceptual schemes of the domain, to provide semantic integration of heterogeneous data, and problem solving in terms of the domain.
Keywords: conceptualization; ontological modeling; neurophysiology; data interoperability; data reuse
Abstract: The analysis of the results of observations of a group of objects during the time when these objects can change any of their significant characteristics is considered. The goal is to describe the changes and identify the factors that determine them. Appropriate methods are known as longitudinal. The article proposes a different approach when a series of multivariable characteristics of an object makes up a single vector of the observed values. By increasing the dimension of the data, it is possible to obtain a single picture of the description of objects and to formalize the construction of a data model. To demonstrate the essence of the approach and illustrate the emerging possibilities of data analysis, the problem of early cancer diagnosis using a prostate-specific antigen biomarker is considered. It was revealed that a multivariable approach to the analysis of a series of analyzes leads to an increase in the accuracy of diagnosis.
Keywords: serial data classification; longitudinal analysis; consolidation approach; mixture of probabilistic principal component analyzers
Abstract: The paper discusses information security concerns in the digital economy related to the expansion of the digital economy while spreading heterogeneous devices, legacy devices and software. In particular, the threats of creation of "false data," increase of "fakes" in electronic interactions of economic entities, fraud in identification and payments, and fraud with bank cards are considered.
Keywords: digital economy; heterogeneous systems; information security
Abstract: The article is devoted to the development of a method for identifying conflicts between agents in hybrid intelligent multiagent systems. Conflict identification is the first step in the process of conflict management by the facilitator agent of the hybrid intellectual multiagent system modeling collective problem solving by experts at the round table. At this stage, the type (problem- oriented, process-oriented) and the intensity of the conflict between each pair of agents of the system are determined. This will ensure the management of the collective "reasoning" process by activating different types of collective thinking depending on the nature and intensity of the conflict, which will increase the relevance of hybrid intelligent multiagent systems to expert teams which successfully solve problems with high combinatorial complexity, heterogeneity, underdetermination, and other non-factors.
Keywords: conflict; hybrid intelligent multiagent system; expert team
Abstract: The principles of formation, updating, verification, and application of information basis of the power system digital twin, viz. a virtual copy that accurately reproduces and specifies the state and behavior of the original in real time are considered. A six-layer digital twin architecture is proposed which includes an ontological model, a digital schema, electronic documentation, an information model of the facility, real-time data from meters and sensors, and mathematical and simulation models. The structure of the interaction of digital twin layers during the facility operation is shown, including verification cycles.
Keywords: digital twin; ontology; information model; real-time data; generative design; distributed energy system
Abstract: General-purpose high-performance processors exploit combinations of diverse approaches to the computation parallelism, multicoring and multithreading included. Due to objective difficulties for quantitative estimations of multicoring and multithreading efficiency, as well as their interdependency in modern server processors, various developing companies choose differing structural solutions based on some proprietary evaluations or followed company traditions. Meanwhile, regarding network processors specifically, thorough consideration of their organization peculiarities and examination of their typical software features may induce the developers to a qualitative conclusion on preference of multicoring against multithreading, which would stimulate them to use in the network processor design the ARM architecture with its predilection for aggressive multicoring and conceptual disregard for multithreading.
Keywords: ARM; computation parallelism; multicore; multithreading; network processor; processor architecture
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF RELIABILITY INDICATORS EQUIPMENT OF SITUATION CENTERS ON INFORMATION SECURITY
Abstract: The article deals with the relationship between the reliability of equipment of situation centers and information security. The situation center is modeled as a distributed information and analytical system, which is executed on the platform of the digital environment and is designed to support management decision-making within a specific organizational system. The problem of the evaluation of the relationship "equipment reliability-information security" is formulated. The methodology of subject-object relations of security is used to tackle the problem. The influence of failures and malfunctioning of equipment of situation centers on information security in terms of confidentiality, integrity, and availability of information is analyzed.
Keywords: situation center; information security; security threat; equipment reliability; digital environment; subject-object security relations; information and analytical products; equipment failure
Abstract: The paper examines an earlier e-book model to describe the digital economy at the regional level. The model is based on tangle, which is an upgraded version of blockchain. The security of an e-Ledger is based on the usage of situation centers and the expansion of their functions. At the same time, it is proposed to build an e-Ledger on the basis of a centralized consensus. The paper shows how tangles associated with individual economic actors can monitor the implementation of projects, including through public investment. The built formalization of control allows automating the solution of these tasks for large projects.
Keywords: information security; tangle; algebra of tangles; secure digital economy infrastructure
INFORMATION AND ANALYTICAL SITUATIONAL CENTER FOR STRATEGIC PLANNING IN THE FIELD OF NATIONAL SECURITY: FACTORS OF INFLUENCE
Abstract: Earlier studies of information and analytical activities carried out by Federal Executive authorities in the interests of strategic planning in the field of national security, provided the functional content of the key approach to automate this activity - the creation of a situation center. Continuing the study of issues, moving on to the detailed design of the platform of the information and analytical situation center (IASC), this article analyzes the technical, technological, organizational, and legal factors that have a fundamental impact on the IASC project. The article contains a list and definitions of influence factors, their systematization, and brief analysis. Subsequent architectural decisions will need to ensure consideration of the factors of influence and previously developed functional scheme of IASC, based on the principles of situational analysis in strategic planning processes in the area of national security.
Keywords: strategic planning; situation center; factors of influence
Abstract: Transport safety issues are considered from the point of view of information support. For this purpose, a description of the subject area for the basic process is formed - the transportation of passengers. The main objects of the subject area and links are highlighted and their descriptions are given. The conceptual model details the description of the subject area up to the indication of specific dictionaries and classifiers, class diagrams. "Complex passenger" and "trip" are proposed as key objects. "Complex passenger" is a technique that allows combining information about one individual making "trips" by different types of transport, i. e., accompanied by different sets of attributes, based on versatile defined identification rules. The description of the ontology is finally given. It is proposed as the basis for the implementation of a full-fledged decision support system in the selected field. The proposed methodology was used by the authors in a number of completed projects and proved its effectiveness
Keywords: transport safety; information model; conceptual framework; ontology
Abstract: The article discusses the experience of the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) in organizing data life cycle in the (post)grant period. In particular, excerpts from legal documents, a structure of a data management plan recommended by SNSF, and explanation of FAIR Data Principles are presented.
Keywords: data management plan; data life cycle; data storage and preservation; digital repositories; FAIR data principles; metadata standardization
Abstract: The principles of constructing a temporal geodatabase and its features are presented. The essence of the multiple representations of geoobjects in the aspect of generalization and in the temporal aspect is considered, the typology of the relationships that occur in the structure of the multiple representations of geoobjects in the temporal geodatabase is highlighted, and the integrity constraints of the structure of these relationships are highlighted. The features of the generalization mechanism in the context of the functioning of the temporal geodatabase are considered, the phenomenon of changing the methodology and generalization criteria in time as another type of information transformation is presented.
Keywords: geodata; information transformations; multiple representation of geodata; multilevel generalization; temporal aspect of geodata; temporal geodatabase; variation of the generalization structure over time
Abstract: The article continues the series of works devoted to the technology of concrete historical research supporting. The technology is based on the principles of co-creation and crowdsourcing and is designed for a wide range of users which are not professional historians and biographers. The article is devoted to the further development of the technology by integrating the mechanism of automated assessment of the reliability of the processed information. The impossibility of using the existing approaches to this problem was substantiated by the specificity of concrete historical research and the processed information in its context which is presented in the form of historical-biographical fact. The classification of types of concrete historical information for which the parameter of reliability is reasonable was carried out. The detailed description of the mechanism was given; the procedures of automatic generation of information reliability assessments were defined. The methods of evaluating the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism are described. A quantitative indicator of efficiency is proposed. The applicability of computer modeling methods for its determination is substantiated.
Keywords: concrete historical investigation; distributed technology; reliability of information; historical-biographical fact; automated procedure
DEVELOPMENT OF AN APPLICATION WITH A GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE FOR STRESS ANALYSIS BASED ON THE solidDisplayFoam SOLVER OF THE OpenFOAM SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to develop software with a graphical interface for stress analysis based on the OpenFOAM software environment.
Keywords: numerical simulation; continuum mechanics; stress analysis; OpenFOAM; open source software; graphical user interface; Python programming language; PyQt4 library
Abstract: The review presents the core of the multicurrency market digital technologies of the normalized economic mechanism (NEM). In the NEM model, the economic component of state sovereignty is determined by the system of rules for economic activity established by law, including the rules of multicurrency deals, state fees, formation, and usage of the state budget funds. The foreign trade market for any pair of countries is defined by a certain set of goods types (the exchange of which is permissible in accordance with a foreign trade agreement), by the set of currencies applicable for trade, customs rules, and rules of foreign trade fees. For each type of goods, digital technologies of the multicurrency market provide the economic activity participants with the opportunity to make transactions in any currency from the list that is the intersection of the sets of currencies allowed by the banks-regulators of the states to which the participants belong. At the same time, the commodity capacities of currencies for each product vary depending on the market situation; taxes and duties are paid in the currencies used in economic deals; and the technology of e-trade with direct lending serves as a means of stimulating sales for the national currency. An important means of the NEM security is the designated payments technology.
Keywords: normalized economic mechanism; multicurrency market; multicurrency market technologies; technology of e-trade with direct lending; designated payments technology
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