Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 32, Issue 1, 2022
Abstract: In the fourth, final, article of the series devoted to the description of the decision support system in the field of ensuring the safety of passenger traffic and countering illegal activities in transport, basic concepts, search and selection data functions, and subject-specific analytical calculations are supplemented with statements requiring complex data processing. The content of such statements is provided by the study of joint movements of groups of passengers as well as typical tasks of analyzing summary statistics on passenger traffic. The solutions are provided by the traditional business intelligence tool, OLAP technology. To apply it, the necessary concepts are first formed that describe the fact store (data mart). Facts are formed as a result of discretizing of the timeline of passenger movements. Detailing the specific tasks of analyzing the movement of groups of passengers provides the formation of solutions in the form of OLAP-cubes. In the conclusion, the results of the research performed are summarized.
Keywords: transport safety; decision support system; transport information; analytical data processing; hypercube
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN THE FIELD OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IV: CHINESE GOVERNMENT POLICY
Abstract: The paper concludes a cycle of works devoted to the analysis of the impact of state-shock management on the effectiveness of research and development in the field of artificial intelligence (AI R&D). The fourth part of the cycle presents the result of the analysis of the impact of the state policy of the People ' s Republic of China (PRC) on the AI R&D area. Brief information on the scientific and technical potential and strategic documents of the PRC in terms of the development of AI R&D, adopted since 2017, is presented. The structure of public and private financing of AI R&D in the PRC is described. A brief description of the organization of AI R&D in the field of defense and security is given. Concluding remarks are presented including differences in approaches to strategic state planning in the field of AI R&D adopted in different states.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; face recognition system; surveillance/tracking system; smart city/safe city
Abstract: The authors have obtained a new uniform estimate for the truncation bounds for a more general class of weakly ergodic Markov chains with continuous time and catastrophes. In contrast to the previously studied cases, for the corresponding direct Kolmogorov system, the matrix A has a more general form and less stringent restrictions on the intensity. The authors assume that the process is weakly ergodic in the li norm and in the "weighted" norm 1щ. The obtained estimate is valid for heterogeneous processes of birth and death as well as for queue with group admission and maintenance of requirements and for nonstationary service models with catastrophes and "heavy tails", i.e., when the intensities decrease at a power rate. The paper also describes an inhomogeneous queuing system Mt|Mt|S with catastrophes as a numerical example.
Keywords: approximations; truncations; catastrophes; queuing systems; weak ergodicity
Abstract: The paper discusses the processes typical for the digitization of geoinformation in the GIS information environment. The evolution of the processing of digitized geoinformation by means of GIS is considered. Digital geodata, as experience shows, ensure the improvement of the activities of any company. However, most modern geodata are not interoperable: they are stored in isolated geodatabases, noninteroperable systems, and used in restricted applications. In this connection, it is difficult to exchange geodata; often, it is not possible to analyze and interpret them. The necessity of the existence of geointeroperability for digital transformation of geodata is shown. The existing models of interoperability used for the formation of GIS are listed. It is noted that the most unexplored problem of GIS is still the elimination of the gap between the various models of interoperability used to form it. Solving this problem would provide a unified method that takes into account the strengths and weaknesses of each individual model when they are integrated.
Keywords: GIS; digital transformation; geointeroperability
Abstract: The article describes the phonetic-acoustic base of Russian trigrams for analysis and synthesis of Russian speech. The classification of the Russian trigrams is given as well as trigrams easy and difficult for pronunciation are highlighted. It is noted that the trigrams in the composition of the word fully or partially coincide with the morphemes of the Russian language. The variants of marking of speech records in the system of marking sounding speech are illustrated. Variability in pronunciation of Russian trigrams by different speakers is analyzed and illustrated by means of oscillograms. It is shown that the speech markup system allows taking into account personal characteristics of the speaker, affecting the quality of pronunciation. The influence of phoneme location in the word on the quality of its recognition is studied. It is suggested to use frequency of use and the position of the phoneme in the word as weights when using trigrams in speech recognition and synthesis tasks.
Keywords: phonetic-acoustic base; trigram; speaker; annotation; oscillogram; pronunciation; variability
Abstract: The article is devoted to the issues of assessing the quality of information systems (IS). The main attention is paid to the consideration of the internal side of the quality of IS related to the convenience of their development and production, manufacturability, safety, and reduction of design costs. The historical aspects of the formation of the essence of the inner side of the quality of IS presented in the works of W. Shuhart, E. Deming, and A. Feigenbaum are considered. The main methods of IS design aimed at reducing costs in their design in accordance with international and domestic standards are presented.
Keywords: quality; internal quality; quality assessment; quality management; design standards; information system
Abstract: Software-defined networking (SDN) is a centralized network control concept that postulates concentration of all control plane functions in a logically single programmatic network controller, simplification of data plane nodes to primitive switches, and a unified protocol, OpenFlow, particularly, of interaction between them and the controller. The SDN idea was born and initially implemented within academic laboratories. However, its expansion to data centers and, subsequently, to provider networks revealed a number of weak spots. The network bootstrapping and remote configuring were among them since these procedures cannot be accomplished using solely the OpenFlow means and do not fit into the original SDN framework. The SDN networks deployment practice showed the impracticability of the refusal from the TCP/IP protocol stack which remains indispensable, in particular, for SDN network bootstrapping and remote configuring. As a result, in the reality, we observe the SDN network nodes as some traditional full-fledged routers, only augmented with the supplementary OpenFlow functionality, instead of the conceptual simple pure OpenFlow switches, while the SDN networks themselves remain trivial IP networks with the centralized control being not full-sufficient and provided as an optional supplement.
Keywords: bootstrapping; software-defined networking; remote network configuring; OF-CONFIG; OpenFlow
Abstract: The problem of analyzing a monotone trend is considered. An estimate of the maximum likelihood of distribution parameters is built when the monotonicity condition is formulated for the values of some function from them. The solution of the corresponding problem is obtained in the form of an algorithm which generalizes the PAV (Pool-Adjacent-Violators) procedure.
Keywords: monotone trend; estimate of the maximum likelihood; PAV- procedure; nonparametric trend testing
Abstract: The article is devoted to the further development of the distributed technology of concrete historical investigation support based on the principles of crowdsourcing and focused on a wide range of users which are nonprofessional historians and biographers. The development is carried out due to the inclusion in the technology and modification of the means of automating of demographic events records linking that refer to the method of family reconstitution widely used in historical demography. The modification consists in creating the add-in over the algorithms of the family reconstitution method which provides automatic linking based on the comparison of the structures of the family relations graphs.
Keywords: concrete historical investigation; distributed technology; record linking; nominative document; family structure sources
Abstract: The methodology of symbolic modeling of arbitrary objects in the human-machine environment (s-modeling methodology) includes the theory and an expanding set of methods for its application. S-modeling uses all kinds of symbols (audio, visual, etc.) implementable in the human-machine environment of s-modeling (s-environment). S-models are studied as entities having three interrelated representations in the s-environment: symbolic, code, and signal.
Keywords: symbolic modeling; s-modeling; information technology; digitalization
Abstract: The paper presents the architecture of a new linguistic resource: the Supracorpora database reflecting hierarchies of logical-semantic relations that ensure the text coherence. Annotations in the database are in the form of trees or, rather, arborescences, where vertices contain data while edges represent the subordination between vertices. Each tree vertex corresponds to either a context or a connector; the connectors in the text are marked. The authors describe the relationships between the database tables and trees as well as their properties.
Keywords: supracorpora database; corpus of texts' annotation; graph; discourse relations; connector
EFFICIENCY EVALUATION OF CAPITAL AND OPERATING COSTS IN THE PLANNING OF THE SPECIAL-PURPOSE INFORMATION SYSTEMS LIFE CYCLE
Abstract: Special-purpose information systems, i.e., systems in the field of ensuring defense capability, law enforcement, and security are not designed to generate income in monetary form, i. e., it is impossible to assess the effectiveness of capital and operating costs using profit and gross income values. Nevertheless, the state and functional customers as well as the operating organization face the task of objectively evaluating the cost effectiveness in one form or another. In this regard, to assess the effectiveness of capital and operating costs in relation to such types of systems, it is necessary to determine approaches to this assessment based on taking into account the consumer properties of an information system at all stages of its life cycle. The methods of calculating efficiency are proposed taking into account the degree of implementation of system requirements and processes for achieving the goals of the information system.
Keywords: information system; life cycle; capital costs; operating costs; efficiency indicator
IMPROVEMENT OF THE GRAPHICAL INTERFACE OF THE OpenFOAM PLATFORM IN TERMS OF EXPANDING THE LIST OF UTILITIES FOR WORKING WITH COMPUTATIONAL MESHES
Abstract: The study is devoted to improving the graphical shell of the Open- FOAM platform to provide the user with access to the boxTurb utility which provides modification of the computational domain by generating a turbulence block for a given energy spectrum. Work with the utility is carried out at the stage of determining the initial parameters of a numerical experiment (at the preprocessing stage) performed for problems of continuum mechanics (CM) modeled on the basis of the OpenFOAM platform. As a part of the finalization of the graphical shell, a software module has been prepared for working with the boxTurb utility. A set of tools necessary for preparing the source code of the module is presented and a diagram is given that describes the mechanism of its operation. Based on the presented module, the source code of the basic version of the graphical shell of the OpenFOAM platform has been extended. The product has been tested on the example of one of the CM training tasks of the OpenFOAM platform distribution kit. A description of the practical value and novelty of the study is given.
Keywords: numerical simulation; continuum mechanics; graphical user interface; OpenFOAM; Python programming language; open source software; boxTurb utility; PyQt5 library; SQLite
Abstract: The paper presents an overview of tasks, functions, and main stages of export in supracorpora databases as well as in the phraseological dictionary database (PD DB) which contains dictionary articles of German idioms and their translation into Russian. Supracorpora database contains parallel texts of book originals and translations and, as a result of export, a user obtains a catalog of selected annotated translation equivalences of the studied language units in both the original and the translation(s). After export from the PD DB, the user obtains a set of dictionary articles selected according to the user's criteria. The goal of the paper is to describe the principles of export unification during the formation of dictionary article sets and the creation of catalogs of annotated translation equivalences.
Keywords: export functions; supracorpora database; catalog; phraseological dictionary database; annotated translation equivalences
Abstract: The problem of a sufficient amount of the information for identifying the search object in the big data is that the search method may, under noise conditions, skip the searched object or, conversely, point to objects that accidentally possess the features of the present searched object. The paper discusses the simple approach to estimating the solvability of the problem of searching for the required information in big data in weak assumptions about the informativity of the identification features of search objects. In the simplest case, big data consist of a set of objects, each of which is described by a set of parameters. Each parameter definition area is its own information space. Parameter values help identify the searched object and filter false objects. If there are few parameters, then unambiguous identification of the desired object is possible in stronger restrictions on the volume of big data. Since the possibility of unambiguously identifying the desired object is not known in advance, it is necessary, at least approximately, to evaluate the restrictions on the amount of big data in which it is possible to unambiguously identify the desired information.
Keywords: information security; search for anomalies; algorithms for filtering false alarms
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