Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 29, Issue 1, 2019
Abstract: Development of digital economy generates new threats of information security. The serious economic damage to small and medium business can put mass inactivation of low protected computers. The paper deals with certain ways to prevent such vulnerabilities. Two approaches of creation of protection against mass inactivation of low protected computers of digital economy are suggested. The first approach is connected with creation of a specialized cloud, providing services of information security. Communication of low protected computers through Internet connection is carried out only through this cloud.
Keywords: information security; digital economy; cloudy computing systems; virtualization
TECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF INFORMATION SECURITY IN THE FINANCIAL MARKET IN TERMS OF DIGITAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN ECONOMY
Abstract: The financial market is presented as an object of protection, functioning in the economic sphere at the conditions of legal relations. The analysis is performed and the structure of the digital economy is proposed. The instrumental level of implementation of economic processes - "platforms and technologies" - is structured. The nature of new challenges and problems of information security during digital transformation is considered. The authors propose the basic approaches of information security in network architectures of operating and information analytical systems of the financial market: analytical security systems and systems of situation centers.
Keywords: financial market; digital economy; information security; economic security; security threat; intrusion detection system; situation center
Abstract: The successful promotion of digitalization of scientific research is largely due to the possibility of creating an effective system of widely available scientific services. The system of scientific services should support the processes of automated selection of relevant services and implementation of various formal and informal communications of the researcher and the state, scientific community and business. The effectiveness of such a system depends on its completeness and integrity due to the breadth of the coverage of all types of scientific activities by scientific services. A systematic analysis of the methodology of scientific research and the identification on this basis of the whole set of processes that provide it can give the completeness and integrity of the system of scientific services. The article considers the modern model of research processes, defines the range of providing scientific services, and provides the classification of such services.
Keywords: model of research processes; scientific services; system of scientific services
FUNCTIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE HYBRID INTELLIGENT MULTIAGENT SYSTEM OF HETEROGENEOUS THINKING FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF RESTORING THE DISTRIBUTION POWER GRID
Abstract: The problems arising in the operational and dispatching management of regional power grids are characterized by heterogeneity, partial observability of the control object, as well as its dynamic nature, which determines the interdependence of the actions performed and the complexity of correcting erroneous decisions. Traditional abstract-mathematical models are limited and irrelevant to such dynamic environments and, therefore, teams of experts of different specialties are involved but due to the limited time for decision-making, it is not possible to organize comprehensive collective problem solving process.
Keywords: heterogeneous thinking; hybrid intelligent multiagent system; the problem of restoring the distribution power grid
Abstract: The article deals with the search for effective solutions in the field of computational materials science which essentially depend on the possibility of conducting a multifactorial analysis of the atomic-crystalline and quantum properties of the new materials for a limited time. For this class of tasks, a multiscale modeling technology is used, which involves the use of distributed computing in high-performance software packages. Without verification of the results of predictive modeling from experimental data, it is not possible to create adequate multiscale models that reflect the essence of real multiscale processes which take place when new materials are received. An important factor in the practical implementation of the presented approaches is the development of multicomponent integrated software systems for information support of multiscale modeling.
Keywords: multiscale modeling; information support; integration platform; software package
Abstract: Permanent perfection and complication of protocols related to quality of service and network security forces packet switches' creators to shift their preferences from the hardware packet forwarding to soft switching methods and, implementing these methods, to programmable devices with additional network functionality. From this standpoint, network processors represent practically ready to use inexpensive programmable switches realizing the concept of switching on shared memory. Alongside with many merits, this concept has an intrinsic throughput limitation resulting from the memory sharing itself.
Keywords: buffering; integrated network processor; packet switching; switching on shared memory
Abstract: A holistic description of the multilevel structure of the generalization of geodata containing nonuniform information objects is proposed. A typology of relations of information objects of various levels of generalization is presented, in the context of which the formal criterion of the property of generalization reversibility is defined. The typology of inhomogeneities arising from the comparison of certain types of information objects and ways to eliminate them are considered. The criterion of heterogeneity of the structure of generalization and the concept of a segment of homogeneous generalization are introduced. Practical examples of nonuniform generalization in topography are given.
Keywords: geodata; cartographic generalization; generalization of spatial data; digital cartography; geoinformatics
ELECTRONIC CATALOG OF THE LIBRARY FOR NATURAL SCIENCES OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AS A SPECIALIZED INFORMATION RETRIEVAL SYSTEM FOCUSED ON A QUALIFIED USER
Abstract: The summary catalog of books and continuing editions of the Library for Natural Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences (LNS RAS) as an example of a fundamentally new approach to creating a library catalog like an information retrieval system is considered. This catalog reflects all the editions that are acquired for collections of more than 50 libraries included in the LNS RAS centralized library system (CLS). In contrast to the majority of Internet catalogs, the LNS RAS catalog allows one to handle almost an unlimited amount of requests that include any elements of bibliographic descriptions and subject classification headings connected by Boolean operators "AND," "OR," and "AND NOT." A user is able to limit the search by the collection of any library, included in CBS of LNS RAS and also to search the books that are available in the full-text electronic version. The search results are presented in the form of advanced bibliographical descriptions and include publications' scanned pages such as title, abstract, and table of contents.
Keywords: electronic catalogs; Internet; bibliographic descriptions; subject headings; network technologies; search requests; information retrieval
A MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF THE PROBLEM OF PLANT PROTECTION IN A BIOSYSTEM OF THE TYPE "HARMFUL INSECTS - BENEFICIAL INSECTS" WITH ARBITRARY TROPHIC FUNCTIONS
Abstract: When studying the agrocenosis of cotton, the problem arises of a formal description of its structures, i. e., a set of blocks in which the stocks of elements and energy are concentrated, and the flows connecting them within the agrocenosis, carrying out the transfer of matter and energy from the block to the block and, also, studies of stability issues - agrocenosis. The basis of cotton agrocenosis is the crop itself: cotton as a primary product. Due to cotton, a variety of organisms live - phytophages, cotton pests. Pests of cotton include aphids (black alfalfa, melon, and large cotton), scoops (cotton, small ground, and azimic), and spider mite. Pests find in cotton a copious source of food and multiply intensely. The author considers the mathematical problems of point models, i. e., when the population size depends on time. The so-called preparatory task of plant protection is formulated. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the solvability of preparatory problems of plant protection with arbitrary trophic functions are found.
Keywords: model; agrocenosis; plant protection problem; number of population; arbitrary trophic functions; useful insects-harmful insects; model biosystem
Abstract: On the basis of the stochastic canonical expansions (StCE) theory, approximate nonlinear correlational methods and algorithms for analytical modeling of additive and parametric harmonic, quasi-harmonic, and wideband noises in generalized Volterra stochastic systems (VStS) are developed. The elements of StCE are given. The stochastic Volterra problem "Preys and Victims" with one trophical level is investigated in detail. Special attention is paid to test examples for one- and two-dimensional VStS with additive and parametric harmonic, quasi-harmonic, and wideband noises.
Keywords: analytical modeling; harmonic, quasi-harmonic, and wideband noises; method of stochastic canonical expansions (StCE); method of normal approximation (MNA); method of slow-changing amplitudes (MSCA); method of statistical linearization (MSL); Volterra stochastic systems (VStS)
ALGORITHMIC SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF OPTIMAL CONTROL IN A DYNAMIC ONE-SECTOR ECONOMIC MODEL WITH DISCRETE TIME BASED ON THE DYNAMIC PROGRAMMING METHOD
Abstract: The paper studies a new formulation of the optimal control problem in a dynamic one-sector economic model with discrete time. In the task, the states are the values of the specific capital. The control parameter is the proportion of the specific product produced, directed for investment. The study is based on the dynamic programming method. The Bellman equations for the problem are obtained. The optimality of controls satisfying the Bellman equations is proved. An algorithm was created and described in detail that allows one to solve the Bellman functional equations numerically and to find the optimal control strategy for the problem posed.
Keywords: dynamic programming; optimal control problem; discrete time; Bellman equations; one-sector model of an economic system
Abstract: The subject of this article is the expected maxima of an arbitrary number n of independent and identically distrubuted random variables. Probability distributions with zero mean and variance of 1 and with given value of the expected maximum of m independent random variables of this distribution are taken into consideration. The question of reachability of the boundaries obtained by other authors is investigated. In the cases of failure to derive the answer to this question, the obtained boundaries are specified. The problem might have various applications in queuing theory, insurance, finance, and other fields.
Keywords: expected maximum; reachability
ON COMPUTATIONAL REDUNDANCY OF THE DICHOTOMOUS SEARCH AND CONDITIONAL MINIMIZATION OF UNIMODAL FUNCTIONS BY THE ECONOMICAL DICHOTOMOUS SEARCH
Abstract: The hypothesis about the computational redundancy of the well- known dichotomous search, applied along with other known numerical methods, in particular, the golden section search, for the conditional minimization of unimodal functions, is discussed. The technique for eliminating the computational redundancy of the method is formulated and on its basis, a method for minimizing such functions, called the economical dichotomous search, is developed. The author developed the algorithms and code that implement the method in Delphi.
Keywords: unimodal function; dichotomous search; golden section search; Fibonacci number method; economical dichotomous search; monotone function; method speed
Abstract: This paper is devoted to Bayesian balance models, which imply separation of factors affecting the system under study, into positive, i.e., contributing to functioning, and negative, i. e., impeding functioning. To study the effectiveness of the system, the balance index, equal to the ratio of negative and positive factors, is concerned. It is assumed that the factors depend on environment, and it is not possible to determine their exact values due to lack of time and material resources, imperfect measuring equipment, etc.; however, the laws governing factors' alterations remain unchanged and are known a priori to the researcher. Under these conditions, it is reasonable to use the Bayesian method, which implies randomization of the initial parameters and, hence, the balance index, under the assumption that a priori distributions of the factors are known. In this paper, the probabilistic characteristics of the balance index in the case when both factors have a priori Weibull distribution are concerned.
Keywords: Bayesian approach; balance models; mixed distributions; Weibull distribution; gamma-exponential function
Abstract: The paper examines the task of goal-oriented discovery and filling of lacunas in linguistic typologies considered as forms of knowledge representation.
Keywords: discovery of lacunas; filling of lacunas; linguistic typology; knowledge extraction from parallel texts; corpus linguistics; objects of interpretation
Abstract: The article is devoted to the further development of the technology of concrete historical research support which was built on the basis of the system of automatic facts extraction from historical and biographical texts T-parser and designed for a broad range of users which are not professional historians and biographers. The development is carried out by the integration of the program complex п-Factograph oriented towards the research process support into technology. The article describes the capabilities of the program complex and justifies its inclusion into the technology. The problem of integration is solved by using analysis of the data models on which the T-parser system and п-Factograph complex are based. The concepts of the biographical fact and fact-like statement are described, the evidence of their likeness is provided. Based on the results of the analysis, a unified data model which allows the joint use of elements of the unified technology was built and described in detail. In conclusion, the need for the unified technology of concrete historical research support in connection with increase of public interest in family history is substantiated.
Keywords: concrete historical research; distributed technology; semantic network; data model; historical-biographical fact
Abstract: The questions of automation of thematic modeling methods for monitoring and studying extremist sites on the Internet are considered. The authors study the texts of sites and social networks. The basic elements of the technology realized as a unified process from data collection to obtaining the result are considered. The examples of experiments are given. The technology includes the automated construction of the author's index - the index of ideological impact, calculated by implicit references between texts. The optimal parameters of the algorithm for calculating implicit references are calculated automatically on the basis of maximum correlation between explicit and implicit references.
Keywords: thematic modeling; automated systems; terrorism; Internet; implicit references
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