Systems and Means of Informatics scientific journal
Volume 23, Issue 2, 2013
COVERT CHANNELS GENERATED BY TAGS IN DATAGRAMS.
Abstract: The covert channels generated by tags are defined by separation in a data stream of sections which lengths are the codes of hidden transmitted data. Separation of sections of data is carried out with the help of tags. It is simpler to hide tags from detection, or it is possible to transfer them on other channel. In the paper, such covert channels are described by a couple of synchronized processes. The considered method of the hidden transmission allows to transfer large amount of hidden information in case of minor changes in a legal data stream. Examples of such covert channels are given. The correctness of coding and decoding of hidden information in such channels is proved. Such covert channels can be used not only for hidden information transfer, but also for integrity monitoring.Methods of creation of proved invisible tags for such channels are found. Invisibility is provided with cryptography methods. Implementation ability of the considered methods is confirmed experimentally. The computer prototype for experiments uses only the open software.
Keywords: covert channels; integrity monitoring; invisibility of the covert
channels; transfer protocols of datagrams
TOPOLOGICALMODEL OF FINGERPRINT IMAGE.
Abstract: The paper describes a new fingerprint image model which consists of topological and geometrical features of minutiae neighborhoods. To create a model, the authors suggest to calculate the topological features in the neighborhood of each fingerprint minutiae: ridge ending or bifurcation. The topological feature is the interrelation between two minutiae. An example of topological feature is the fact that two minutiae are situated on one ridge. Then, the list of topological features is constructed. Description of each feature is extended with metric information: distances between minutiae. Further, the proposed model is used for fingerprint identification. The experiments have shown that simultaneous usage of topological and metric features significantly improves the accuracy of fingerprint identification. On public available databases FVC2004, at FMR = , FNMR is 2%.
Keywords: topological vectors; events; bond length; fingerprint; identification
METHOD OF PARALLEL CIRCUITS FOR FINGERPRINT IMAGE RECOGNITION.
Abstract: New method of fingerprint image processing is described. The method is based on simultaneous tracking of ridges and valleys directions, instead of tracking ridges. In areas of good quality, the directions can be determined confidently both for ridges and valleys. But in areas of poor quality, there is a problem with accurate measuring of ridge flow. Given a pixel on filtered fingerprint image, the chains of pixels of minimal and maximal intensity are tracked. Based on the results of tracking, the hypotheses on ridge flow direction for ridges and valleys are generated. Then, the results are fused in order to obtain estimation of ridge flow direction and density. It allows to significantly improve the accuracy of ridge flow direction and density in the areas of poor quality. Finally, it is used to form the field of flows and its confidential (quality) matrix. More accurate measuring of ridge direction improves fingerprint recognition by more accurate feature extraction: ridge endings and bifurcations.
Keywords: fingerprint; field of flows; chiaroscuro; parallel circuits
PERSON CLASSIFICATION UPON FACE IMAGE BASED ON SIMILE CLASSIFIERS.
Abstract: A new approach to person classification upon face images is presented. It consists of two steps. First, similarity distances between a test face and faces from a known sample are computed. For this task, special simile classifiers are trained. Similarity distances are estimated independently for each face fragment, e. g., nose, mouth, left or right eye, etc. Pixel colors, brightness, gradient norm, and orientation are used as features both for each pixel and for whole fragment in the form of a histogram or Gaussian distribution parameters. Person classification is performed based on these similarity distances. For classification, support vector machine with radial basis function kernel is used. The proposed algorithm was tested on a gender classification task, using Labeled Faces in the Wild and Public Figures Face databases. The algorithm achieved 92.96% accuracy.
Keywords: face classification; gender classification; support vector machine
AGE ESTIMATION UPON FACE IMAGE BASED ON LOCAL BINARY PATTERNS AND A RANKING APPROACH.
Abstract: A new age classification algorithmis suggested, which is a modification of method developed by Chang et al. The algorithm is based on training of a set of binary classifiers. Each classifier estimates whether the person is older than a specified age or not. The age then can be simply calculated as a sum of outputs of all binary classifiers. Using local binary patterns as classification features, age prediction accuracy improvement is achieved, though classifier size is increased. A number of modifications, which decrease a classifier size and increase classification speed, but keep age estimation accuracy high, are proposed. Experiments on MORPH database showed mean absolute error from 4.52 to 5 years and classification time between 0.32 and 3.21 s, depending on parameters.
Keywords: face classification; age classification; local binary patterns
THE SEARCH FOR MATCHES BETWEEN THE IRIS KEY POINTS USING HERMITE PROJECTION PHASE - ONLY CORRELATION METHOD.
Abstract: The paper is based on the analysis and comparison of the iris key points which are the most informative points of the iris image texture. The key points are selected using Hermite transform. The search for matches between the iris key points using Hermite projection phase-only correlation of local areas around key points is suggested. In Hermite projection phase-only correlation method, the Fourier transform is applied to the expansions of images intensity functions in a Fourier series of Hermite functions. The proposed method of key points comparisons does not use any information about key points locations, is robust to eyelids, eyelashes, and glares, and gives good results.
Keywords: iris recognition; phase only correlation; Hermite functions; key
DISCRIMINANT ANALYSIS FOR CLASSIFICATION AND FORECASTING OUTCOMES OF THE TREATMENT.
Abstract: The aim of the work was to develop a classification method for patients underwent hyperbaric oxygenation procedure and to build up a relevant mathematical model of evaluation and forecasting the patient condition during each session and the whole therapy course. This classification method supposed to be based on the effectiveness of the treatment. The group of 161 patients was observed. For each patient, cardiac physiological parameters were registered during each hyperbaric oxygenation session via continuous computer monitoring system. The discriminant analysis was applied to obtained data. In the model developed, the rate of success in test sample classification achieved 75%. The classification technique based on statistical inference and expert estimates was developed.
Keywords: discriminant analysis; discriminant variables; classification functions;
STUDY OF THE COMPLEX PROBLEMOF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION DIAGNOSTICS IN THE METHODOLOGY OF ARTIFICIAL HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS.
Abstract: An approach to modeling the decision-support systems within the methodology of artificial heterogeneous systems is introduced on an example of a complex problem of the arterial hypertension diagnostics. Investigations were conducted on two models: \heterogeneous" and \homogeneous," and are relevant to the new scientific worldview in biomedicine, based on principles of variety, complementarity, cooperation, and relativity. The aim of the research is to develop the consulting hybrid intelligent system for the arterial hypertension diagnostics. The results of system analysis of the complex problem of arterial hypertension diagnostics within the methodology of artificial heterogeneous systems are presented, namely, identification and reduction of the complex problem, subtasks specification, methods selection for solving of homogeneous subtasks, and proof of the problem heterogeneity.
Keywords: decision-support system; functional hybrid intelligent system;
heterogeneous problem; arterial hypertension diagnostics
AGGREGATION GEOCONCEPTS FOR GENERALIZATION MAPS, APPROPRIATE LOGICAL CONSISTENCY AND SEMANTIC ACCURACY.
Abstract: In recent years, the number of fixed and mobile devices using automated methods of generalization map dramatically increased. This raises the question of the quality of digital imaging models map. Generalization should not only ensure certain standards for the derived scale of the map, but also maintain a certain level of semantics. To conduct an objective comparison of the different results of generalization, it is necessary to introduce a measure of the accuracy of semantic aggregation areas and geoconcepts. An approach that shows how this could be used to compare the results of generalization is presented. Also, the methods for determining the relationship between n geoconcepts to be distributed over N units so that in each unit, therewere geoconcepts most similar to each other on the set of m selected descriptive features. The function F is introduced | a similarity geoconcepts function of jointly k selected features, normalized to the maximum range of the characteristic values on the set of n geoconcepts.
Keywords: generalization; the quality of geodata; aggregation of the map areas;
aggregation of geoconcepts
THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF PROGRAMMING METHODOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR RECURRENT ARCHITECTURE.
Abstract: The paper is dedicated to a new recurrent dataflow computational paradigm and the methodology intended for solving and programming of corresponding problems. These problems are meant to be solved with the computational device that is being developed, which architecture is based on ideas and principles of proposed paradigm. Also, its realization in multicore dataflow recurrent architecture is suggested. Recurrent organization of computational process is theoretically proven to converge by using terms and theorems of the recursive functions theory. The software engineering problemfor this architecture is described and its solution| recurrent dataflow programming methodology| is suggested. This methodology is demonstrated on a problem of isolated words recognition with device based on a new architecture. Also, one of the basic algorithms of the mentioned problem | band-pass filtering | is realized by using the proposed methodology step by step.
Keywords: computational paradigm; programming methodology recursiveness;
METHODOLOGICAL QUESTIONS OF FORMATION OF THE SYSTEM TECHNICAL SUPPORT OF INFORMATION - TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS.
Abstract: The basic concepts in relation to the object of research are described. It is shown that the formation of the system of technical support (STS) of information and telecommunication network (ITN) is an integrated system problem, acquiring preconceptual covering of a very wide range of interrelated processes at all stages of the life cycle of ITN. Basic of them are formulated almost in the same sequence as they should be resolved in the course of creation of the STS. Consistently, the stages of research to create an STS, the tasks, and obtained results are described. The analytical model of the functioning of the STS and general scheme of the method of forming the STS are given. It is shown that the mathematical description of the processes of functioning of complex hierarchical systems, such as STS of ITN, is extremely complex and serious problem. Its solution is suggested in two stages: at the first stage, the description is given in the form of abstract mathematical formalization of the process of functioning with the use of set theory (relations on the set between sets and functional maps), and at the second stage, the most important processes in the system, such as repair, maintenance, supply of new technical means, spare parts tools and accessories are distinguished and transition from intuitive concepts to detailed mathematical description of using analytical and probabilistic models is realized. An approximate structural scheme of the STS is suggested. Basic content of the regulatory support of the STS of ITN is justified.
Keywords: system; information and telecommunications system; the system
of technical support; research; design; development; operation; effectiveness;
ON A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF SITUATIONAL CENTERS EFFICIENCY.
Abstract: The issues of performance evaluation of situational centers that solve similar problems are considered. The consideration is based on structural and functional representation of a situational center taking into account institutional components and human factors. Principle of comprehensive evaluation is used. This principle consists in the fact that operational efficiency of situational centers is defined by efficiency indexes of its components - functional, technological, technical, exploitative and organizational ones. The system of efficiency indexes of each component is suggested. Atechnique of comparative analysis of situational centers efficiency and examples of its calculation are presented. It is shown that development and integration of high-performance systems which provide execution of full list of required tasks even with creation of necessary technical infrastructure will not allow to achieve high level efficiency of situational center if exploitative and organizational components are at low level.
Keywords: situational centers; efficiency; indicators
FORMATION OF THE GOALS SYSTEM FOR SITUATIONAL CONTROL.
Abstract: The basic principles of structure, content, and implementation of the system of goals in the management real-time systems, connected with a situational analysis, are discussed. Well-known criteria SMART is used to check the effectiveness of goal-setting in control systems and formalization of the OODA cycle management. In accordance with the chosen ways of formalization, the model list of essential management purposes is formed by sections of observation, orientation, decision, and action. The issues of specifying thegoals, quantitative evaluation of their achievements, and the generalized criteria of efficiency of management on the basis of situational analysis are discussed. It is shown that the quantitative indicators of the degree of implementation of goals must be based on a combination of objective indicators of management and methods of expert and statistical estimation of parameters of the external environment.
Keywords: management system; situational analysis; system of goals
UNIVERSAL PATTERN OF ORGANIZATIONS FOR THE SITUATIONAL CENTERS.
Abstract: Interdisciplinary technology of modeling organizational structures, based on the approaches technetika, organizational cybernetics, and principles of autopoiesis is presented. Developed an invariant pattern of modeling - VSM (Viable System Model) Cenose which is presented in the form of an abstract model and the platform for engineering situational centers based on it. Platform «Situational Centre "VSM Cenose" » can be used for organizations of different types, forms of ownership, methods of accounting, size, complexity, and other parameters. The mechanism of pattern projection from the meta model is developed through an abstract and specific model of the landscape of the organization. The advantages of design and management on the basis of a unified information environment allowing to move freely through all levels of hierarchically organized structures and to maintain overall control of the situation without loss of activity have been shown. This technology is scalable from a small organization to the level of the city, industry, and country.
Keywords: pattern; synthesis; technetica; organizational cybernetics; autopoiesis;
organization; VSM Cenose; situational center
SITUATIONAL CENTER VSM CENOSE.
Abstract: The description of the platform «Situational Center VSM Cenose», aimed at configuring and operating of a situational center in the organizational structures of various forms of ownership and activities. Main functions: display of internal and external environment due to specialized multidimensional and multifactor graphical interface; display of forecasting information; combining different ways of description; presentation of information in accordance with the principles «from the general to the specific», «top-down» invariance with the respect to changes in the way of accounting methods, forms of business organization due to complex organization based on the basis ideas of technetika and organizational cybernetics; expanding the functionality of the complex during the operation due to the migration process templates, both between levels of the organizational structure and the different systems due to meeting the principles of recursion, self-similarity and fractal; and interchange of data with third-party program developers. The specific feature is the technology «VSM Cenose», which makes situational center «VSM Cenose» a universal platform for replicability of situational centers.
Keywords: situational center; platform; VSM Cenose pattern
DATA PREPROCESSING AND EXTRACTION OF LOGICAL RULES BASED ON THE GENETIC ALGORITHM.
Abstract: The possibility of joint use of genetic algorithms and methods for extraction of logical rules in data mining problems is considered. The combined data preprocessing algorithm is suggested. It consists in segmentation and selection of the most significant values of attributes and combinations of attributes using the genetic algorithm. It can be attributed to the so-called island algorithms as the number of populations is selected equal to the number of classes. Choosing such quantity of populations is due to the fact that the performance assessment of the rules accuracy and completeness is appropriate to produce for each class. It is shown that the genetic algorithm allows selection of logical rules in the multivariate data analysis with high accuracy and completeness. The presented algorithm can be used to analyze data in data warehouses to detect hidden patterns in them, on the basis of which the construction of rules and decision trees could be produced.
Keywords: genetic algorithm; logical rule; data mining
INFORMATION SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DECISIONS FOR ASSESSMENT OF LINKAGES BETWEEN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGIES.
Abstract: The description of conceptual decisions for assessment of linkages between science and technologies is considered. The decisions are a framework for developing information systems, which will have some new features. These features are not present in other similar information systems of the Russian scientific and technical sphere. Their development is necessary for monitoring and evaluating R&D programs and decision-making at all stages of scientific and technical program activities. The architecture as a whole system and conceptual decisions on separate functional subsystems are described. These decisions are based on methodology for assessment of linkages between science and technologies, which is developed in IPI RAN. Conceptual decisions have a number of fundamental differences from other systems for assessment of linkages between science and technologies. First, there is a possibility of fetching a system for classification of knowledge domains fromsome classification systems. Second, formation and application of terminological portraits for headings of the chosen classification system is provided.
Keywords: monitoring and evaluating of programs; linkages between science
and technologies; methodology for assessment of linkages; information systems;
DATABASE «FORC STAFF PROCEEDINGS» AS A PART OF THE «FIBER OPTICS INFORMATION SYSTEM».
Abstract: The paper describes Fiber optics information system (IS). Its purpose is to provide scientific digital resources for basic and applied research in this area. Information system allows users to have access to bibliographic information and full texts of articles. Access to full-text articles is carried out using the appropriate links to the site publishers (if user has a subscription). Content of IS is being provisioned by experts using scientific databases and FORC staff publications. The main possibilities of IS software and some practical examples are considered. The section of IS, which is called «Proceedings FORC» and practical approaches when working with the database (DB) are shown. The characterization of the content DB «Proceedings FORC» is described. The results of some bibliometric research on the quoting of the FORC are presented.
Keywords: database; fiber optics; information technology; scientific electronic resources
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